Lesson Archive

Revise your punctuation - 2

Today we’ll look at some more English language punctuation marks.

Don’t confuse a dash (i.e.–) with a hyphen! (i.e.-) A dash is used to denote a sudden change in the construction or sentiment: e.g. “The heroes of the Great War – how we cherish them.” A dash is also used to replace the words: (that is, namely) e.g. He excelled in three sports – football, rugby, and cricket.

Revise your punctuation! - 1

Many students are good at reading articles in English but when it comes to punctuation in dictation (a listening, writing and spelling exercise) they sometimes run into problems.

While we use punctuation marks in written form we don’t often say them aloud. It is of course just a question of remembering them after learning them. The question is though how good are you at remembering them?

Even native English people forget their punctuation! So where should we start? We all hopefully know where a full stop (point, dot or period) (i.e. .) goes - at the end of a sentence! Probably a comma (i.e. ,), but let’s double-check everything.

Good morning Borneo!

You are fast asleep in your hammock in the tall green dense jungle when suddenly your radio alarm clock rings: The DJ yells, “Good morning Borneo! This is Radio Gibbon calling… The news headlines. Another 3 gibbons have been rescued…”

Believe it or not this radio station in Indonesia actually exists! Playing vibrant pop music Radio Kalaweit (its official name) broadcasts from a gibbon sanctuary deep in the Borneo jungle in Kalimantan Tengah. Locally it is known as Radio Gibbon largely thanks to a Frenchman.

Category: Conservation / Borneo / Gibbons

Lost city found in Amazon

In 2002, a Finnish archaeologist Alceu Ranzi was flying over the Amazon when suddenly he came across geometric shapes dug into the earth. The shapes made up a series of trenches topped by banks and connected by a network of straight roads. Ranzi then contacted a historian and archaeologist Martti Parssinen who said, “He realised they weren’t natural structures and must have been made by indigenous people.”

The search for the lost city of El Dorado

For centuries many different explorers have searched for the lost city of El Dorado in the Amazonian jungle. El Dorado in Spanish means ‘the Golden One’. Some explorers claim to have had success in discovering lost civilisations in the Amazon jungle. Each time though it beguiled them, leading many to their deaths.

Between 1519-1540 Spanish explorers first hit upon the idea of a golden city somewhere in the Amazon jungle. In 1519, Hernan Cortes and his soldiers discovered the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan, in Mexico. In the 1530s, Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire, in what is now Peru.